Epidemiological, clinical aspects and outcomes of polytrauma in polyvalent intensive care unit at University Hospital of Brazzaville, Republic of Congo
Keywords:epidemiology, clinical, outcomes, severe trauma, intensive care unit, Brazzaville
Background: Severe trauma or polytrauma is a patient submitted to high-energy trauma victime with violent trauma regardless apparent injuries. No study have been done on polytrauma in Republic of Congo. The aim was to describe the epidemiological, clinical aspects and outcomes of polytrauma at University Hospital of Brazzaville (UHB).
Materials and methods: It was a retrospective, cross-sectional study carried out on 82 polytrauma in intensive care unit (ICU) of UHB. Epidemiological, clinical and outcomes parameters were recorded and analyzed with Excel 2016.
Results: The mean age was 37.2±16.4 years (sex ratio : 4.1). The most common mechanism of injury involved was Road Traffic Collisions (82.9%). Almost 50.0% polytrauma were admitted directly from the emergency service of UHB. The average Glasgow Coma Score was 10.1 ± 4.1. Respiratory distress and shock were observed in 35.4% and 17.1% of cases respectively. The head (76.8%) and the thorax (41.5%) were the most frequently injured body areas. The complications had occured in 34.1%. The mortality rate was 42.7%. The predominant cause of death was central nervous system injury (62.9%). The median length of hospital was 5 days.
Conclusion: Polytrauma remain a common reason for admission in ICU. Most of these patients are youngs and male genre. Road Traffic Collisions were the most common mechanism of injury. The head and the thorax were the most frequently injured body areas. The mortality rate is high.