Antithrombotic prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in the pediatric intensive care unit : an update.
Keywords:neonates, children, intensive care, venous thrombosis, thromboembolism, thromboprofylaxis
Aim: The goal of this study is to undertake a systematic review of the current literature on the prevention of venous thrombosis
in critically ill children.
Material and Methods: Systematic review based on search in PubMed and Embase for articles between January 1975 and
March 2018 with the following key words: pediatric, children, venous thromboembolism, venous thrombosis, pulmonary
Results: Venous thrombosis is frequent and often underdiagnosed in pediatric intensive care units even though it is associated
with increased morbidity and mortality. Most often thrombosis is catheter related in critically ill children. In contrast to fi ndings
in the adult literature, there is no evidence that thromboprophylaxis is benefi cial in critically ill children except perhaps in adolescents with trauma in whom some benefi t has been shown.
Conclusion: Venous thromboembolism is a concern in critically ill children. In the absence of quality evidence to guide practice,
studies are needed to identify the patients who are at risk and might benefi t from thromboprophylaxis as opposed to those at
risk of bleeding in whom anticoagulation could be detrimental.